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Question 1 (14 marks)
Question 2 (6 marks)
In 2000, 5,458 women were screened for cervical cancer and 92 were found to have CIN 3 stage or above (diagnostic of carcinoma of the cervix or carcinoma-in-situ). The women who did not have cervical cancer were re-screened in 2005 and another 60 cases were diagnosed.
What is the incidence rate (incidence density) of cervical cancer in these women during the five years? (2 marks)
Question 3 (4 marks)
Classify the following scenarios according to epidemiological study type. In your answer nominate one of the epidemiological study designs listed below and also provide 2 reasons for your choice of study design in each scenario.
Question 4 (6 marks)
Find the demographic and health statistical data from WHO's databank ('Mortality and global health estimates': http://www.who.int/research/en/; and 'Global Health Observatory Data Repository': http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.country) and complete the following table (2 marks). Compare the population data and comment on the public health status among the three selected countries and interpret their public health implications briefly (word limit: 200) (4 marks).
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City A crude rate for prostate cancer = Number of cases in 2010/total number of population(male)
= 0.0065 per 100,000 male
Similarly for City B = 3580/100,000 = 0.0358 per 100,000 male
Age-specific incidence rates
= (number of cases/number of population(male) for same age group ) X 100,000
Thus for city A the 0-44 age incidence rate = (50/500,000) X 100,000 = 10 per 100,000
45-64 = (250/75 000) X 100,000 = 333 per 100,00
65+ = (350/25,000) X 100,000 = 1400 per 100,00
For city B, 0-44 years = (80/1,500,000) X 100,000= 5.33 per 100,000 male
45-64 years = (1000/600,000) X 100,000 = 166.67 per 100,000 male
65+ years = (2500/400000) X 100,000= 625 per 100,000 male