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Please do a review of the literature for the topics 'Role of government, private and individuals to build a smoke-free society'. It should be 1500 words each. follow the literature review format mentioned in the power point presentation (Literature review tips FINAL SWN005 2015(1)).
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The bad effects of smoking have been extensively studied from the biophysical and socio-economical point of view. Yet, the results intended are never achieved. Tobacco smoking is the single largest death causing preventable agent in Australia. A total number of deaths per year due to smoking is 15000 and it is estimated nearly four out of every five deaths caused by drug-related issue has a connection with cigarette smoking. The total cost the society has to bear due to smoking and its ill effects are $31 billion. According to 2010 data, the total number of smokers in of age more than 18 is around 17.5% in Australia i.e. half of the total number present in the 1980's. [A1] As per the Australian Bureau of Statistics, in 2011, 6.7% of the school children are listed for cigarette smoking (Banks et al, 2015). Smoking not only affects physical health only as perceived by the public, it also affects the quality of life and degrades the personal performance too. Research suggests, Australian school children tend to miss classes, engage in risky behaviors, drop out from school, and miss school classes, lower performances due to smoking addiction. Similarly, they tend to smoke or get inclined towards smoking due to the effect of peer smoking or smoking by family members (Marashi et al, 2015).
[A1]Adding references to this section would add value as all are facts
These numbers represent the menace of smoking and a need for a smoke-free society. Now, according to Cancer Council Victoria publication, many states and territories in Australia have adopted smoke-free zone policies and legislation in Australia. Rather research suggests, smoke-free zones were facilitated by employers much ahead of legislation and policies are introduced. Employers realized smoking poses an occupational health risk and safety risk thus imposed a ban on smoking at workplaces. But implementing these policies and legislation was not as simple as it seemed (Mark et al, 2010). Many workplaces and organizations where these policies are implemented faced many hurdles and barriers[A1]. The prevalence of smoking and the number of deaths is self-explanatory that legislation and policies were not successful as it was intended to make an effect. The simple question is – what should be the role of government, public and private companies towards a smoke-free society. The current critical review takes into account different contemporary kinds of literature into account and carries out a critical analysis of each literature to provide relevant recommendations for building a smoke-free society.
A systematic literature review was carried out. The databases searched for literature consist of Pubmed, Google Scholar, Medline, Cochrane database etc. [A2]
[A1]A reference should have been added here
[A2]A little more elucidation for the section was desired
Despite major government initiatives and awareness though the number of smoking has reduced in Australia, yet the numbers are too high. The $31 billion burden on society due to environmental and physical effects of smoking demands immediate attention. As smoking has been supported by cultural context and historical context since years, perceiving smoke-free zone building is government responsibility only is a major fault. Their exhaustive study must be done in order to find out what role the government, public and private companies can play in building a smoke-free society in Australia.
What should be the role of government, public and private companies in building a smoke-free society in Australia?
Role of government, public and private companies in building a smoke-free society
Lack of government policies and legislations
Barriers and hurdles posed by public and private companies
Perception of public towards smoke-free society building
Benefits and techno-economically feasible recommendations.
The literature must be published post-2008, the research study or the subject of the study must be addressing the main topic or contributes significantly to the current topic of interest. Both primary and secondary data were included in this study
The studies discussing exclusively on policies and legislations are excluded. Studies taking a subjective approach to knowing public perception of smoking is not taken into consideration. Literature discussing the biophysical effects of smoking are excluded from the study.
In the recent period, few pieces of research suggest public, government and private companies have realized the bad effects of smoking not from the physical point of view but its economic effect too. Research shows, smoking bans in dining areas were firmly supported by Australian public prior to the ban on smoking in pubs and clubs (Thomson and Wilson, 2009).