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A component of the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia (NMBA) Registration Standards is Continuing Professional Development (CPD). 'CPD is the means by which members of the professions maintain, improve and broaden their knowledge, expertise and competence, and develop the personal and professional qualities needed throughout their professional lives' (NMBA, 2016, p 1). An example of a CPD activity is attending 'conferences, forums, seminars and symposia' (NMBA, 2016, p 2).
In NUR131 you are required to participate in the 8 research presentations as an illustrative example of a CPD activity. In Part A of the workbook you are required complete a workbook entry for each of the 8 Research Presentations. The research presentations for this activity are located in the Assessment Task 3 Folder in the course BlackBoard.
Each presentation entry should be approximately 100 words and must address the following criteria: ∙ Date you listened to the presentation
You can only use a technical research term once across the 8 presentation entries.
Part B of the workbook requires you to answer a number of questions related to a research article. The workbook template (included on BlackBoard) includes the question areas that MUST be answered for this assessment task.
You are required to analyse and critique the journal article. Simple yes/no answers are not adequate responses. Do not use quotations as this demonstrates that you can find information but does not demonstrate that you understand a concept.
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Appraisal of the Article: Bartelt, TC, Ziebert, C, Sawin, KJ, Malin, S, Nugent, M & Simpson, P 2011, 'Evidence-based practice: Perceptions, skills, and activities of pediatric health care professionals', Journal of Pediatric Nursing, vol. 26, no. 2, pp.114-121
|Specific critique area||Answer|
|Discuss the research question. Use the PICO format to inform your answer. |
|The research question in this following study was to evaluate the perceptions of paediatric health care professionals regarding evidence-based practice. The present research also tried to evaluate the individual and organisational barriers that prevented the application of evidence-based practice in clinical settings and the differences in perceptions after attending/not-attending EBP sessions (Bartelt et al, 2011, p. 114). Based on the PICO format, the 'Population' that was evaluated in this study represented paediatric healthcare professionals. The 'Intervention' that was planned in this study was 'Evidence-Based Practice' educational sessions. The 'Comparison' was based on academic knowledge acquired in nursing schools and updated evidence-based knowledge. The 'Outcome' evaluated the perceptions of paediatric health care professionals regarding evidence-based practice.|
|Discuss the design used in the research.|
|The design of the present study was based on “Roger’s Diffusion of Innovation Theory”. The theory postulated the process of inculcating new knowledge through different channels to the member of an organisation (Bartelt et al., 2011, p 115). The author speculated that new knowledge could be successfully communicated if such knowledge has viable, practical implications. The present study was conducted as a descriptive and cross-sectional study in a 296-bed academic paediatric hospital. The database of 1500 individuals (healthcare professionals) was accessed, and e-mails were sent to invite them for the study. The healthcare professionals were intimated that their participation would be kept anonymous and voluntary. The follow-up e-mails were sent after 2nd and 4th week of initial contact to thank the individuals who participated in the study. The approval for the study was obtained from the human resources department of the concerned hospital (Bartelt et al, 2011, p. 115). The present study was conducted as a qualitative study as because perceptions are subjective or qualitative variables. Qualitative studies are equally important as quantitative studies in experiments or trials conducted with humans. However, the chances of elemental bias are high in qualitative studies.|
|What was the population used in the research?|
What type of sample was used in the research?
Explain your understanding of the sampling strategy.
|The population for the present study included paediatric healthcare professionals from a 296-bed academic paediatric hospital. A cross-sectional sample was considered for the present study. The database of 1500 individuals (healthcare professionals) was accessed, and e-mails were sent to invite them for the study. The healthcare professionals were intimated that their participation would be kept anonymous and voluntary. The e-mails briefed the study participants regarding the study design and objectives of the study. The participants were asked to participate in the EBP education series meetings. The participants who attended all the sessions were classified as attendees, while the participants who did not attend the sessions at all were classified as non-attendees. Participants who attended some of the educational sessions were included in the study but were neither classified as attendees or non-attendees. The EBP educational sessions described the importance of evidence in day-to-day practice, the necessity of upgrading skills and knowledge in clinical settings, the necessity of accessing journal and other educational databases for improving clinical practice and the skills needed to appraise between qualitative and quantitative research. The response of the study participants was evaluated through a 30-item questionnaire format called “Information Literacy for Evidence-Based Nursing Practice”. The perceptions of the nurses were collected based on educational qualifications and demographics (Bartelt et al, 2011, p. 116).|
|Explain how the data were analysed and the potentials strengths and weaknesses of the analysis.|
| The data were analysed based on frequencies of nurses/allied healthcare professionals exhibiting a specific perception towards EBP. Chi-square test was undertaken to evaluate the response of the participants and to compare the response (regarding the perception of EBP) between attendees and non-attendees and total participants. Moreover, the study also compared the responses between nursing professionals and other healthcare professionals who participated in the present study. The statistical significance was considered at the level of 0.005. This means if the p-value for the computed chi-square was less than 0.005, it indicated that the perceptions of EBP significantly differ between attendees and non-attendees. In fact, the null hypothesis contended that there is no significant difference in perceptions of EBP between attendees and non-attendees (p>0.005). On the other hand, the alternative hypothesis contended that there is a significant difference in perceptions of EBP between attendees and non-attendees (p<0.005). The study indicated that the participants who participated in the study had higher perceptions regarding the need for attending medical conferences and searching journal articles/bibliographical database pertinent to their field of practice. All the observations were statistically significant at the level of p=0.001(Bartelt et al., 2011, p. 119).|
The strength of the study was its statistical power and the chosen statistical level of significance considered for the study. Moreover, the responses were categorised as per the qualifications and demographics of healthcare professionals. Finally, the statistical tests (Chi-square test) were also appropriate for the study. This is because chi-square tests are used to evaluate qualitative variables. The major limitation of the study might be the chances of subjective bias.
|Discuss the ethical considerations for this study. Use the NHMRC National Statement of Ethical Conduct In Human Research to inform your answer.|
|Different ethical considerations are necessary for conducting research studies. First of all, the research should not erode the privacy and confidentiality of study participants. Moreover, under any condition, the subjects of the study should not be harmed and must be benefitted from the study. In this present study, healthcare professionals were intimated that their participation would be kept anonymous and voluntary. Moreover, the ethical approval for the study was obtained from the human resources department of the concerned hospital. The NHMRC National Statement of Ethical Conduct In Human Research provides the framework for conducting research with human subjects and the potential extrapolation of the results based on the samples selected for the study. The guidelines provide different sections which specify a specific ethical framework of research with human subjects. Section 1 and Section 2 endorses that the safety of study participants should be ensured under all conditions, and such provisions were executed in the present study. Section 3 comprises the necessity of conducting qualitative or quantitative studies and its implementation in evidence-based practice. The study appropriately evaluated subjective perceptions that represented qualitative estimation of the responses. Section 4 implied that appropriate participants should be selected for a study. The participants should be selected in such a way so that the results can be reproduced and replicated under similar practice settings. The present study selected appropriate study participants because only paediatric healthcare professionals were included in the trial. Section 5 provides the framework for obtaining ethical approval from the participating institution/s and the necessity of maintaining the confidentiality of study participants. Both these ethical considerations aptly complied because the study participants were intimated that their participation would be kept anonymous and voluntary. Moreover, the ethical approval for the study was obtained from the human resources department of the concerned hospital.|
|Discuss the elements of evidence-based practice and identify how this article may or may not inform practice.|
|Evidence-Based practice refers to the practice that is developed from new pieces of evidence. Such pieces of evidence are reproducible and are replicated across different practice settings. EBP is an essential attribute for improving the safety and quality of healthcare or allied services. It is commonly observed that healthcare professionals rely heavily on their past academic knowledge or experiential knowledge while planning or extending healthcare interventions for their patients. However, in most situations, such knowledge is either inadequate or obsolete. Hence, there is a growing consensus all across the world on the importance of acquiring advanced and evidence-based knowledge. Evidence-Based practice is based upon three guiding principles. First of all, it should be the best available evidence which must be reproducible and replicated across different practice settings. Secondly, it must be able to provide clinical judgment and decision-making skills faster than previous knowledge to ensure safe and quality healthcare for patients. Finally, the accepted evidence-based practice should always be patient-centric and must not impose additional harm compared to conventional/traditional therapeutic interventions. The evidence-based practice could be pursued through various ways and processes (Spring & Neville, 2014, p 132). It can be obtained from peer-reviewed journal articles with a high impact factor. Moreover, these articles should be appraised based on the level of evidence for implementing evidence into practice. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis are the highest levels of evidence (Level 5 evidence), while individual studies are the lowest level of evidence (Level 1Evidence) (Berke et al., 2011, p. 331). Healthcare professionals should be able to judge the level of evidence and must implement the same appropriately in their respective practice settings. On the other hand, continuing medical education (CME) seminars are effective ways of developing evidence-based practice. Healthcare professionals should upgrade their knowledge and skills according to evidence-based knowledge. Finally, evidence-based practice is also developed through EBP training sessions that help to remove the barriers and obstacles in implementing evidence into practice. Such sessions are oriented to address the different apprehensions of healthcare professions for appraising and accepting specific evidence in comparison to their past academic or past experiential knowledge (Patterson-Silver, Dulmus, &Maguin, 2012, p. 671). Thus the present article evaluated the perceptions of paediatric health care professionals regarding evidence-based practice. The article also tried to evaluate the individual and organisational barriers that prevented the application of evidence-based practice in clinical settings and the differences in perceptions after attending/not-attending EBP sessions. However, the evidence (of the article itself) could be considered as a Level 1 evidence because it represented an individual study and the sample size was not sufficient to denote the power of the study. Based on this study, it can be concluded that healthcare professionals should implement evidence-based practice in their respective practice settings.|