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Greenhouse gas emission becomes one of the most critical factors considered by the 'regulatory authorities' and due to the massive impact of emission there are some innovative strategies and policies are undertaken that helps in reducing the rate of greenhouse gas emission to the environment. The reduction of greenhouse gas is conducted by implementing technologies such as combustion and sequestering 'CCG' (Barone, 2010). Therefore, with the help of those technologies, the production rate of carbon becomes very minute in electricity generation with the help of wind turbines. However, it is one of the most extraordinary alternatives that help in fulfilling the demand of power as well as environmental impacts are significantly reduced. In recent times, the use of 'wind energy' is significantly high and it is about 43% of total energy generation in 2010 (Catbas, 2014). On the other hand, the natural gas price hike became critical problems and for this particular purpose the alternative energy source such as wind energy is vividly used by various countries. However, that results in reducing the total cost of electricity generation as well as helps in reducing environmental impacts. The growing demand on renewable energy is fulfilled in modern times with the help of alternative energy sources such as offshore wind turbine technology. The regulatory authorities play an important role in enlargement of an enhanced platform of wind energy because reliable subsidiaries are provided that helps in decreasing the total cost of energy production and the required energy is delivered at a reasonable price. Wind energy production is increasing rapidly and the statistics shows that the rate of energy production has increased about 40GW in recent times. It is also evident from various researches that minute amount of wind energy is contributed to our society and in comparison to the other energy source it only contributes about 4% of energy requirement. However, in 'some places' the contribution is gone above 20% because various initiatives are taken by the local authorities and the government that drives the remarkable change in delivering the energy to the society (Chang, 2013). Therefore, the reliable financial reliability is present of using 'wind energy' source and extraordinary development of modern turbine technology helps in generating more power in less time. Most importantly, the stability of the entire turbine structure in critical condition is one of the biggest challenges that are optimised by experts with the help of innovative tools and techniques of modern engineering technology. The structural stability analysis and risks associated with the turbine structure is illustrated in this study with the help of a standard turbine structure terminology. In this study, the seismic risk evaluation of offshore wind turbine is taken in consideration as well as the existing standards are analysed with the help of standard guidelines. Most importantly, the aerodynamic, hydrodynamic and seismic responses are analysed properly that helps in understating the required maintenance and capabilities of wind turbine. On the other hand, the feasibility of using appropriate turbine design also illustrated in the study.
Risk assessment is one of the most imperative components in 'engineering technology' and it is conducted with the help of innovative tools and techniques of modern engineering. However, the standard guidelines are provided after risk analysis that helps in reducing the chances of failure. Therefore, after effective analysis, the rate of failure can be reduced that will help in providing sustainable energy supply (Haeberli, 2013). For this particular purpose, there is a need for appropriate understanding regarding the use and maintenance of modern turbine in an innovative way. The modern turbines are primarily developed for generating huge important of electricity that will help in reducing the use of power plants and simultaneously the rate of carbon emission will be reduced. Most importantly, the survival of turbines in critical sea condition is the major factor that drives the attention of electrical engineers. It is imperative to place a particular wind turbine farm in a suitable place and the required resistance should be present in design that will help in delivering long-term energy supply. The turbines are designed in a way that will overcome the impacts of tides and obstacles of wind. To determine the wind power is a 'difficult task' but there are some sophisticated models are developed by experts and those models help in displaying turbulence spectrum for a prolonged period. Energy cost is one of the major factors considered by the regulatory authorities and due to this particular reason; the alternative source of energy is highly accepted and encouraged. Wind energy has several using advantages along with the cost-effectiveness (Harrison, 2000). The reduction in the cost of electricity production helps in the economic development of the country and the environmental risks are eliminated accordingly. The current study focus on the factors that result in failure of wind turbines and the associated risk assessment is conducted that will increase the reliability and rate of production significantly.
The aims and objectives of the study are illustrated below-
As the existing literature on the Seismic loading of the wind turbines does not provide much insight into the effect of seismic loading on the various parts of the turbine. This research study tries to provide an in-depth explanation on the basis of the experiments and detailed investigation of the outcomes of those experiments. With the increase in the application of the wind turbines to meet the growing 'energy consumption' there has been growing demand for the exact forecast of the outcomes when the offshore wind turbines are subjected to earthquakes and other factors affecting the turbine operation. The offshore wind turbines have started to play the vital role in the global power infrastructure (Jha A. , 2011). This study provides various design approaches to the offshore wind turbines by using modern HAWT turbine structures to explain the various design parameters that are considered by experts. The basic principle of the wind turbine is to convert the potential energy into electrical energy hence it depends upon three basic principles for its operation: Principle of Mass Conservation, Principle of Energy and Momentum conservation (Karnovskiĭ, 2010). In this study, various design approaches have been discussed and try to come to a conclusion about the critical parameters for turbine operation. The study studies the truss tower construction, lean tower, and hawt tower modules. In this research study, there is an absolute review of the various turbine modeling methods. The seismic modeling of the wind turbines is basically divided into two categories of models, one just considers the tower mass and the other takes into account the full turbine structure including the tower. This study points out that the simplified models are more appealing as they eliminate the need to design the complex parts of a rotor but this type of modeling is not suitable for the method of operation other than preliminary tower mode. Whereas the complete system models are complex because of their detailed explanation of the various components but they are very flexible and include all the possible seismic risk parameters. This study presents various design guidelines that are prevalent in current use. It explains the concept three main standard guidelines: Guiding principle for Design of Wind Turbines (Risφ, 2001); Guideline for The documentation of Wind Turbines (GL, 2003); and IEC 61400-1 Ed.3: Wind turbines- Part 1: Design necessities (IEC, 2005). The strategy for device of Wind Turbines (Risφ, 2001) addresses the basic conditions that could affect the seismic loading of the wind turbine (Navaratnam, 2012). GL guidelines impose guidance on specific aspects of earthquake risks. In International Electro-Technical Commission guidelines, the recurrence interval is prescribed at 475yrs and the outcome placed over the bigger among the average operating loads and urgent shutdown loads. The existing experimental research does not emphasize the identification of the various turbine properties. As earlier studies were presented on the vertical axis turbine systems, which are not prevalent in current use, this research study tries to provide various research details of the modern HAWT systems about which very less data is available. This study addresses the large-scale turbines to analyze their seismic responses (Zia, 2008). This study also dwells into the various socio-economic consequences of damages that are caused due to a seismic activity. Though the socio-economic effects are very complex and there are no existing documentation that can define the method to assess such consequences. This study gives details about the seismic effect on offshore wind turbines that can affect the operation of the wind farms thus affecting the power generation and causing loss to the operating company and create problems for the civilian masses living in the coastal areas, which are depended upon the wind farms to meet their energy demands (Rivkin, 2013). The damage of the wind turbines could jeopardize the various economic activities in the ports and harbors that are the major contributors in the world economy.