How to Write Different Types of Academic Essays

by Dr. Alan October 09, 2018

Essay and its different forms- Types of Essays

We have all come across the word “Essay” in our academic life. The entry level of a student life is creating sentences and then slowly and gradually it moves to short paragraphs and short essays with age. In Australia, the entry level of creating sentences is from ages 8 to ages 12 i.e. from 3rd to 6th grade age students. The next level, Sentence to Paragraph writing is from ages 10 to ages 14 i.e. from 4th grade to 9th grade age students. The third level, Paragraph writing ages are from 12 to 16 i.e. from 7th grade to 10th grade age students. And the last level is Essay Writing ages, which start from 14 to 18 ages, i.e. from 9th grade to 12th grade age students.

An essay is a piece of writing on a topic. Essay writing is a common school task, a part of systematized trial, and a necessity for college applications. Essay can discuss anything and everything. Essays are generally written in the first person (I), or third person (he, she, it, they).

Rules for writing an essay

Before starting to write, analyze the topic carefully in order to make sure you write what is asked. Only a formal academic English is used and not slang or text language. One cannot just write his opinion. Try to back everything you write in an essay with evidence. Give a reference where you got the information from. It’s better not mug up other writings. Essays are always written in paragraphs. It starts with an introduction and finishes with a conclusion.

A classic essay consists of many different types of information, often located in particular paragraphs. Even short essays fulfil several behaviors like launching the argument, examining data, lifting disagreements, concluding. Introductions and conclusions have fixed places in an essay, but other parts don’t have any fixed place. Disagreement or criticism, for example, may appear in an essay, as a freestanding place, as part of the starting, or before the ending. Background material (historical situation or biographical facts, a brief of applicable theory or critique, the definition of an essential word) usually come into sight at the opening of the essay, between the introduction and the first systematic section, but might also appear near the beginning of the specific section to which it’s appropriate.

It’s beneficial to think of the different essay parts as answering a series of queries the reader might ask when reading your essay. Readers must have questions after reading your essay, if they don’t, then your essay is undoubtedly simply a discussion of fact, not a justifiable writing.


The first and foremost question that a reader can ask is “what”.’What’ can be asked in many ways like what the evidence demonstrates that the circumstance described by your theory is true? To answer the question of your reader, you must analyze your clue, thus verifying the truth of the case. This “demonstration” part comes at the beginning of the body of the essay, i.e. directly after the introduction of the essay. Since you’re basically writing your observation, this is the section you have most to discuss about when you first start writing. But be cautious, it should not take up so much that you have finished your essay. If it does, the essay will shortage of proportion of important parts and readers may read as a simple and brief story.


The next probable question that can arise is “how”. A reader will have the curiosity to know if the allegations of the theory are correct in all perspectives. How does the theory perk up to the challenge of a counter charge? How does the introduction of new material influence the allegations you’re making? Ideally, an essay should contain at least one “how” section. This is called the “complication” part since you’re acknowledging to a reader’s complicated question. This section generally comes after the “what,” section of the body part of the essay, but always keep in mind that an essay may involve you in its controversies many times depending on the length of the essay.


The last and the most critical question the reader can ask is “why”. Why your perception of a fact does bother anyone beside you? This question is the most difficult one and contains the larger significance of your theory. It admits your readers to appreciate your essay within a larger framework. In answering the question “why”, your essay clarifies its own implication. The complete answer to it is at the end of your essay. If you leave the question ’why’, it means your readers will experience your essay as incomplete.

Steps for writing an essay

  •  Read the essay topic cautiously

  1. Highlight main words.
  2. Use the dictionary to find the meaning of any unusual words.
  3. Analyze the words that signify a specific topic of the essay, e.g. the ‘causes’ of World War 2, the character of ‘Caesar’ in Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar.
  4. Recognize the restricted words, if any, that limit the analysis to a precise area, e.g. in ‘Chapters 5-8′, during the ‘eighteenth century’.
  • Finish any essential reading or analysis as a background of the essay

  1. Write notes in your own words
  2. Take outline from sources which are appropriate and easily reachable.
  • Deliberate ideas in reaction to any question which may arise

  1. Note down any significant points that come to mind.
  2. Make a mind picture to provoke lateral thinking while writing
  • Develop an opinion that encases the reply to the question

  1. The opinion should be a declaration that firmly articulates the complete reply to the question.
  2. Avoid opinions that are too simple.
  3. The opinion is the backbone of the essay – it will be in the introduction. The opinion needs to be mentioned many times in the essay before summarizing it and definitely showing how it has been confirmed in the conclusion.
  • Write a plan for the response

  1. Arrange ideas in a wise order.
  2. Be assured that every point in the plan is applicable to the question. After the plan has been composed, you will be clear where the essay is heading.
  • Write the introduction

  1. Familarize the theory.
  2. Signify how the questions will be dealt.
  • Write the main body of the essay

  1. Establish each point in a new paragraph.
  2. Use words or phrases like ‘however’, ‘in addition’, ‘nevertheless’, ‘moreover’ at the start of  each paragraph which will hint an account of the previous paragraph to the reader.
  3. Begin each paragraph with a case that clearly, distinctly connects the paragraph to the rest of the essay.
  4. Try to give supporting data for each point that you make.
  • Write the essay conclusion

  1. Outline the principal points.
  2. Indicate how you have confirmed your theory.
  3. Finish with an appealing but suitable comment.
  • Edit the draft

  1. Check all the spellings, punctuations and grammars.
  2. Remove any parts that are not significant.
  3. Advance vocabulary to improve phrases.
  4. Seek feedback from a guide before writing the final copy.
  • Write the final copy

  1. Present a clean, neat copy.

Different types of Essays.

There are over a dozen different types of Essays and writing different types of essays has become demanding to scholastic success. Choosing the right type of essay is a trick. But to write in return to a writing prompt is vital in getting the question right. Certainly, students can’t allow to remain puzzled while choosing the essay in academic tests. There are so many types of essays, so it’s obvious for a student to get confused. It’s a difficult business even for a qualified college student.

The essay is a technique for a student to show what they have learned and to justify themselves as scholars. All the different types of essays have their own exclusive principle, style and objective for all academic hunts. There are some definite set of rules to follow for each different type of essay. Each type of essay is planned to help create different logics and concepts in the writer’s mind, so depending on the writer’s aim, the diverse essay types assist the writer show up their opinion. But for writing the essay, a clear impression and understanding of the topic is very essential for the writer.

The following seven main types of essays are guidance to help the writer in preparing their inner thinking touchable to the reader. The guidelines to write these major types of essays are also discussed.

If you get an essay in your future, take a look at these seven types of essays and its guidelines, it will help you to write the essay without any hassle.

“Types of Academic Essays”

  1. Descriptive essay
  2. Definition essay
  3. Cause/effect essay
  4. Narrative essay
  5. Process essay
  6. Argumentative essay
  7. Critical essay

Descriptive Essay

The term ‘describe’ itself implies demonstrating something with words. One can illustrate anything like a feeling, a sound or even it can be an emotion. The writer can illustrate something in a way that the reader can see or feel or hear whatever it is the writer is talking about. It is an imaginative effort to simply describe what you absorb. Descriptive writing needs both creative and critical thinking. However, while writing a descriptive essay, the writer must have a particular reason for writing the description. Getting the reason assists in focussing the description and inculcates the writer’s language with a distinct context.

Descriptive essays usually incorporate our five senses like to see, hear, smell, taste and feel. These types of essays help readers to see places which he might not be able to go personally, hear new things, taste various food, smell alien smells, or touch diverse textures.

The writer should remember one thing while writing a descriptive essay, i.e. the popular saying: show don’t tell. But there is a difference between showing and telling. Showing means describing and telling means narrating.

For example:

  • I grew exhausted right after dinner.
  • As I drifted back and relaxed my head against the top of the chair, my eyelids started to feel heavy, and everything in front of me is getting blurred.

The first sentence says readers that you grew tired after dinner while the second sentence literally shows that you grew tired. The most impressive descriptive essays are by such showing because they insist readers to actually visualize something for themselves.

Let us take an example of a descriptive essay if the topic of the essay is ‘the village where you visited your grandparents when you were a child’. First of all, list all the things that you have seen in that place. The list should comprise of both general features related to a village and personal and specific things which make it special to you and also to your reader.

Start with general features:

  • Cornfields
  • Ducks
  • Cows
  • Garden
  • Pond
  • Well

Then add the unique details:

  • Playing hide and seek with your siblings and friends in the cornfields
  • The ducks swimming and taking bath in the pond
  • Picking wild greens for the cows to eat
  • The stray dogs that always roamed onto the garden
  • Taking bath with cold water of the well

By binding these details together in the essay, it makes the essay more engaging to the reader. So making these lists helps you to see how you can bind things from each list together. This is the stage where the writer should decide a proper order for the objects needed to be described. For example, if you are describing an object, then you should decide whether to describe its look from top to bottom, or sideways.

However, it’s important to keep in mind that the essay should be started on a generic level and then gradually move towards specifics.

Quick Tips for Writing a Descriptive Essay

Writing a descriptive essay is comparatively easy and pleasing experience, but it can be a bit complex also. Thus, it’s always helpful to keep the checklist of the essential points when you are planning, drafting, and revising your essay.

Planning your descriptive essay:

  • What or whom do you want to describe?
  • What is the reason of writing your description?
  • What are the specific attributes that you want to focus on?

Outlining your descriptive essay:

  • The sights, sounds, smells, tastes, and textures necessary for creating your description?
  • Which details you can incorporate to provide so that your readers can have a clear impression when he is reading your essay?

Revising your descriptive essay:

  • Have you given enough details and descriptions so that your readers have a clear impression?
  • Have you missed out any silly, but necessary point?
  • Have you used words that describe your feelings?
  • Have you used any irrelevant points in your description?
  • Does each and every paragraph of your essay targets on one aspect of your description?
  • Are your paragraphs organized in the most impressive way?

Editing your descriptive essay:

  • At this point, you have to look for any grammatical errors. It is also the time to improve your vocabulary.

Publishing your descriptive essay:

  • This is the time where you actually write a final copy of the essay.

There are many types of descriptive essays. The most familiar ones are those that targets describing people, places or buildings, and objects. Here are a few examples of descriptive essays:

  • – The Swimming pool
  • – Fond memories
  • – The Horse Farm
  • – A mountain resort
  • – My Christmas Day celebration in London
  • – Lou’s Cafe
  • – A beautiful paradise
  • – The photo
  • – My Home
  • – The football field
  • – My first birthday surprise party
  • – Grandpa’s place
  • – My mystical place
  • – My first flight
  • – The Oak tree
  • – The endless day
  • – My mother’s dining room

Definition Essay

A definition essay is a type of writing that illustrates what a ‘word’ means. This type of essays demands a personal yet academic explanation of a particular term. The definition has to be lengthy. So it’s essential to carefully select a ‘term or word’ that provides a writer enough to write about. There are two major types of ‘words’, one that has a definite and concrete meaning, such as pen book, paper, glass etc. and the other that has an abstract meaning,  such as bravery, honesty, love, hatred etc. It’s easier to write about a definite or concrete word.

For example the word ‘Pen’, it’s a concrete object and so it’s easy to define it. The explanation goes in this way, “A pen is a writing tool used for applying ink to a surface, such as paper, for writing or for drawing”.

Now let’s consider the word ‘Bravery’, being an abstract word, it’s difficult to define it. The explanation of bravery, “The characteristic that allows someone to do such activities that are hazardous or fearsome”.

However, it’s better to choose an abstract word because an abstract word has a complex meaning and is debatable i.e. it means different to different people. It wouldn’t be a clever idea to choose a word like “pen” for a definition essay because the word, “pen” has a straightforward meaning, so the writer will definitely have to worry in writing an entire essay about it.  Moreover, not many peoples opinions will contradict the definition of the word “pen,” which means the definition will be small and very common. On a contradictory, the writer can write many things on the word “love” like ‘first love’ ‘romantic love’, or ‘platonic love’ and everybody has different opinions about this word.

Quick Tips for Writing a Definition Essay

  • Firstly the reader should know what word is being defined by your writing. The writer can define by function, by structure or by doing an analysis.
  • The information provided to describe the word should be very clear.
  • To give a transparent understanding to the reader, it’s better to use examples, facts or anecdotes in the writing. Think of a set of examples to describe your definition.

          Get help for how to choose the right word.

 Golden rules for writing a definition essay

  • Questions like “When” and “where” should be avoided in a good definition essay. A noun is described as a noun, a verb through a verb, etc.
  • The writer should not copy his definition from the dictionary definition but is assumed to be the impression of the author’s assessment.
  • The best way to describe the definition is to use simple English language. 

Structure of a Definition Essay                       


This part should have a universal description of the word. To this generic description, the writer can give a contradictory opinion to contrast it. End your introduction by giving your own definition of the word that you are going to talk about in details throughout the essay.


In your essay’s body, the writer has to provide a few different points that compose your perception of the definition but the points should be paragraphed separately.

Point 1

This will consist of the first element of your definition. Support your writing with examples, facts or anecdotes.

Point 2

This is the second facet of the word. Once again, try to give an example and provide analysis.

Point 3

Etc., if necessary


The conclusion should contain an overview of all the above points. Restate the word to be defined, the process adopted and it’s effectiveness. The writer can also explain how the definition has impacted his life.

Important points to remember while writing a definition essay

  • Try to give an explanation which is on your own and not just copying from anywhere else.
  • If the term has an extremely vast meaning, then do confine the description of the term. Let us take an example, the term ‘fan’ has a broad definition, and in order to describe it, the writer has to write many pages, but if you narrow the topic to ‘baseball fan’, then it will be much easier for the writer with expertise the essay.
  • A proper progress is needed to establish a connection between the paragraphs.
  • Proofread your essay cautiously in order to prevent any factual and grammatical mistakes.

Here are a few examples of definition essays:

  • – Courage
  • – Independence
  • – Literature
  • – Hero
  • – Success
  • – Lou’s Cafe
  • – Friendship
  • – Love
  • – Art and Excellence
  • – Military discipline
  • – Team player
  • – Optimism
  • – The word ‘Private’
  • – The many meanings of community
  • – Defining the Soul of Man
  • – Murder
  • – Definition of Citizen

Thus, whatever be the essay topic you choose, you should have an interest in the subject and it should be common for you, only then you can describe the topic. It would be beneficial if you had personal experience with the topic you are going to describe or define.

Cause and Effect Essay

As the name conveys, Cause and Effect essays are those essays which deal with why things happen (Cause) and what is the result (effects) of that? The aim of such essays is to talk about the reasons and explain the effects of an event or situation. When you are writing critically, it is essential to analyze why something is the cause. It is necessary to give reasons and explanations for any allegation you make. There are several types of causes and effects.

Primary causes and effects– These are the ones that are most important.

Contributory causes and effects– These are the ones that are less important.

Immediate causes and effects– These are the effects or the cause directly.

Remote causes and effects– These are the ones that are not obvious.

Writing a good essay about cause and effect is easier than other essays. It follows a logical process and once you form the outline of the essay, it can be written in no time.

For example:

Cause – Your car is out of fuel; Effect – The car won’t start.

Cause – Cause of global warming; Effect – The planet is warming.

However, there can be many causes and many effects of a situation and it totally depends on the topic of the essay. Depending on the topic, there are three major patterns of organizing cause and effect.

Organizing a cause and effect essay

Body 1: Causes/ Reasons

Body 2: Effects/ Results

Body 1 and Body 2 are written in separate paragraphs. An example of this pattern is “Causes of divorce” are explained in one paragraph and the effects or consequences of divorce are explained in another paragraph.

Body 1: Causes/ Reasons

Body 2: Causes/ Reasons

Body 3: Effects/ Results

Here, each paragraph is dedicated to one of the causes i.e. separate paragraphs for separate causes. And all the effects are discussed in one paragraph. Let us take an example of, “Cause of World War 1”. All the causes of World War 1 are explained in different paragraphs and the effects of World War 1 are explained in a single paragraph.

Body 1: Causes/ Reasons

Body 2: Effects/ Results

Body 3: Effects/ Results

In this pattern, all the causes are discussed in a single paragraph and all the effects are discussed in separate paragraphs i.e. each paragraph is dedicated to one of the effects. Let us take an example, “what motivates parents to purchase cell phones for their kids?”All the justifications for buying mobile phones for their kids are discussed in one single paragraph whereas the various consequences of cell phone use by children are discussed in separate paragraphs.

Body 1: 1st Causal link

Body 2: 2ndCausal link

Body 3: 3rd Causal link

This pattern is different from the above patterns. Here, an event causes something to occur and that situation points to another event, and it causes another event to occur and so on. This is called the Causal chain or Domino effect. Let’s take an example “Deodorants will bring an end to the world”.

1st Causal link: Deodorants emit gases such as chlorofluorocarbon gas

2nd Causal link Causal link: This gas depletes the ozone layer.

3rd Causal link: The unfiltered ultraviolet rays cause overheating and melt an iceberg which causes Global warming.

4th Causal link: The huge amount of water released from the poles raises the sea level.

5th Causal link: The Sea will cover the land and thus this will be the end of the world.

 Guidelines for Writing Cause and Effect Essay

  • First of all the writers should figure out the cause and effect of the topic. This is the most crucial part of the essay. For finding the cause, ask yourself“How did this take place?” and for finding the effects, ask“What can be its consequences”.List out the possible causes and effects of the topic and make a note of them.
  • In the introduction of a Cause and Effect essay, the writer should illustrate the subject’s background, clear the cause and why accepting its effects is crucial.
  • Show clearly whether you are explaining the causes or effects or both of them. Present your main object of the essay by using words like “causes” or “effects” or “causes and effects” both.
  • Try to give examples and relevant details to back up your statement. Personal evidence strengthens your essay.
  • Use suitable transitional words and phrases that can be used in this pattern for better writing like “one cause is, another is, first, resulted in, due to, since, for, because, therefore, consequently, thus, one result is, another is, second”.
  • Sometimes the number of causes and effects become unmanageable, so in that case, the writer needs to narrow writing.
  • End your essay by illustrating your analysis together.


Here are few examples of Cause and Effect essays:

  • Deforestation
  • Divorce
  • Lying
  • Money causes Unhappiness
  • Moving to a large city
  • Dress codes in school can decrease bullying
  • Cause and effect of Homeless pets
  • Causes of school violence
  • World War 1
  • Cell phones- Friend or Foe?
  • Driving a car
  • The effect of technology on organizations.
  • Welfare programs cause crime.
  • Emergency contraception causes abortion.

Narrative Essay

“Narrating” means telling a story or an experience. Narrative essays are those essays which are written from the writer’s personal experience. Writing a narrative essay means telling a story since it lies in the writer’s experience. It requires a lot of creative and critical thinking. Narrative essays are told from a specified point of view so there is a feeling provided to involve the reader in the aspects and the progression of the story. The narrative essay creates a point and that point is always explained in the opening sentence of the essay but also can be in the last sentence of the opening paragraph. Narrative essay provides an opportunity to know you better. One of the best ways to disclose about you is to write about how you became experienced about something. While such knowledge can come only when you get new ideas or have experiences that brought a change in you in some way.  While writing a narrative essay, you will learn techniques to express personal experience to amuse others. Narratives bring human attraction; spark our interest, and draws close to the writer or storyteller.

Summarizing the points, the narrative does the following things:

  • Creates a sense of feeling, connecting people together.
  • Entertain readers.
  • Serves psychological curing. Reading or listening to the narrative of someone who experienced a similar crisis like you can help in overcoming the crisis.
  • Creates awareness.

Features of a Narrative Essay

Narrative essays explain experiences (past or present) of how you felt, what you thought or how you acted to the situation. The experience can be either the writer’s personal ones or the experience of someone else. Apart from entertaining your reader, it also makes a point and a message to convey. Your experience might not be an interesting story, but a good narrative essay compels the reader to think the importance and influence it had on you.

  • It is generally written chronologically.
  • Usually has a reason, which is stated in the opening sentence or last sentence of the first paragraph.
  • It is usually written from the writer’s point of view.
  • Sensory details and vivid descriptions are used to attract the readers.
  • Targets in relation between past experience, people, or places and the present experience.
  • Points out critical changes, disparity, or clashes and establishes tension.

How to plan a Narrative Essay

  • Firstly finalizes an incident or experience which is worthy of writing.
  • Find relevant details of your experience.
  • Finally, widen those details to make the incident impressive to the readers.

Quick tips for writing a Narrative Essay

  • If the writer plans to write a story, then the essay should include all the parts of a story like setting, characters, plot, climax and an ending. Flashbacks and flashforwards can be used to build the climax.
  • The introduction should start with a point.
  • Use clear and concise language to evoke emotions in the mind of the readers.
  • The first person pronoun (I) is generally used, however, the third person pronoun (he, she, it) can also be used.
  • Use vivid verbs and descriptions to recreate the experience for your readers.
  • Dialogues can also be used.

How to impart the significance of the experience

  • It’s always powerful to start your narration with a paragraph that opens the experience and relate the importance. This style of writing confirms that the readers will appreciate the importance of the experience as they advance through the narrative.
  • Another impressive style is to start the essay by jumping straight to the narrative and then concluding the essay with a paragraph relating the importance of the experience. This technique allows readers to grow their own perception of the experience through the body of the essay which in turn connects to your experience of the significance more intensely at the end.
  • One more technique can be considered i.e. opening the experience in the first paragraph, but delaying the explanation of the significance of the experience until the end of the essay. This style enhances the emotions of the readers.

How to revise a Narrative essay

  • After writing the body of your narrative essay, read carefully the whole essay and think whether the writing efficiently recreates the involvement for your readers.
  • Ask your friends to read the complete essay and give their reactions.
  • Try to analyze where more detailing and explanation is needed.
  • Get rid of any unwanted fact that seems to divert from the main story of the essay.
  • Before submitting, judge once again whether you’ve bestowed information in the most impressive way.

Here are a few examples of Narrative essays:

  • Playground memory
  • Christmas cookies
  • Lost wallet
  • Victim of robbery
  • My interests
  • My laptop
  • My foolish faith
  • Most memorable Christmas
  • Not so important exam
  • The fatal car accident

Process Essay

Process essay are those types of essay in which the writer tells how to do something or explains how something is done. It gives a step-by-step description of a process that gradually progress to a surprising and projected results. The process can be either actual or conceptual. The name of a process essay needs to be enough information so that the reader can easily guess what kind of process will be discussed in it. Thus the main aim of such writing is to explain one particular process in such a way that will leave no questions in the reader’s mind.

There are two types of process essays

  1. Directional process essays

    This type of essays gives instructions for how to do a specific task. It often gives an account of equipments or supplies and contains time-order words like first, second, next, etc.

  2. Informational process essays

    This type of essays describes or inspects a process. It needs innovative writing.

The best thing about this type of essays is that it can be very helpful. When the reader finishes reading the essay, he will come to know how to do something which he was not aware before reading the essay.          

Features of a process essay

  • The approach of writing totally depends on the readers for whom it is being written.
  • It is generally written chronologically.
  • Each level is explained in different paragraphs.
  • The explanation of each level should be clear and accurate.
  • Transitional words or phrases should be used to maintain continuity between two paragraphs or levels.
  • Do not number the levels.
  • Imperative sentences should be avoided or else the essay will end up with an educational manual and not an essay.

How to plan a Process Essay

  • Divide a sheet of paper by drawing a line from the middle and making two columns. Name the first column as ‘materials’ and the other as ‘steps’.
  • Think and write down every item and steps in the columns without worrying about the order.
  • After noting down all points, start numbering the steps.
  • Finally, write an outline of the process essay.

How to revise a Process Essay

  • While revising your process writing, think about the readers who will be reading your essay.
  • Ask yourself whether you have chosen an appropriate introduction. Do not presume that your readers already have knowledge about the topic.
  • Ask yourself whether you have provided enough explanations.

How to write a Process Essay

  • Introduction

Tell what the process is and why it is essential. Here the writer should disclose the main goal of the process without giving any details. He has to explain the actual meaning of the process and its usage in day to day life. Basic history can be given. By reading the introduction, the reader can learn in which aspect he can implement this knowledge.

  • Body

Discuss in details the main idea of the essay. The number of paragraphs in the body depends on the number of levels or stages of the process. Each level should explain a definite goal and also should have all the essential details. The levels should be presented in a valid order.

  • Conclusion

The concluding paragraph is generally short. It declares the result of the process. The reader gets an idea of what they can do next time if they face the same problem mentioned in the introduction. In conclusion, the writer can warn the reader about the hazards involved if the levels are not followed in the order and also can propose advices of how to overcome those problems.

Many academic writings have some parts which are descriptive or narrative, and other parts which are persuasive or critical.


Process essays generally pursue the time order i.e. they start up with the first level in the process and advances with time till they reach the last level of the process. Thus the use of transitional words signifies that one level is completed and a new level will begin. Be cautious in using the right punctuation with each transition. Here are some transitional words that are used in a process essay.

  • Later
  • Immediately following
  • Afterwards
  • Initially
  • At last
  • In the end
  • In the meantime
  • First of all
  • Formerly
  • Eventually
  • Meanwhile
  • In the future
  • Currently
  • After a few hours
  • Before this
  • During

Here are a few examples of Process essays

  • The Process of Floor Maintenance
  • The Process of Gas Metal Arc Welding
  • How to name a cow
  • The Process of DNA Replication
  • How to write a good essay
  • Preparing dinner for the In-laws
  • Bathing a large dog
  • Preparing a pumpkin pudding
  • How to travel with a small child
  • The process of Baptism

Argumentative Essay

Argumentative essays are those in which the writer’s can show that his allegation about some event or incident is more appropriate than others. In this type of essay, the writer’s does not only provides information about the topic, but also creates an argument with the supporting and the opposing theories of the topic. The writer should clearly take his stand either by supporting or opposing the topic and convince the conflicting reader to support his judgement. It is a fashion of writing in which the writer has to inspect a topic, accumulate, produce and judge the proofs and set up a point on the topic. The main aim of an argumentative essay is to influence the readers to change their beliefs which they do not want to. The writer normally uses various controversial points to prove his opinion.

The art of creating disputation through your writing is not an easy job. Many people might think that if someone has an opinion, then the other will definitely argue with his opinion but this is not the case. Argumentative writing explains the process of your reasoning and without explaining, you do not have a dispute.

We are all used to some form of argumentation in our daily life. We have used different ways of confirming to proof our approach, though they may not be a formal way, but these methods of influencing form the base of argumentative essays. You do not have to fully confirm your opinion, but to only persuade your readers that your argument has value and it is more correct than other contending arguments.

Features of a good argumentative essay

  • Establishing information for backing an argument.
  • Clarifying the applicable points.
  • Arranging and editing the facts.
  • Having the confidence to persuade your readers.
  • Declaring the conclusion.

How to choose a good topic for an Argumentative essay

A good topic for an argumentative writing is the one which has two contradictory aspects or very dissimilar outcomes. The writer not only should have a firm interest in the topic, but also should have powerful proof to back up his opinion. Then only he can write a good argumentative essay.

How to write an Argumentative essay

One you have decided the topic and gathered all necessary evidences for both sides of the topic, you can start to art your essay.

Like other types of essays, an Argumentative essay should also contain three parts: 1. Introduction, 2.Body and 3.Conclusion.

  1. Introduction

The first paragraph of an argumentative essay should contain a brief explanation of the topic. It should also give some detailed history of your topic. The introduction must be attractive enough to keep your readers connected so that they do not leave without reading your essay. In order to connect your opinion to what you ultimately what to prove is by giving your thesis statement. The thesis statement generally describes what you want to prove and gives a synopsis of your disputes that you will make in the body paragraphs. It is the last sentence of the introduction paragraph.

  1. Body

The body paragraphs explain the evidences to support your thesis statement. The number of paragraphs in the body depends on the topic and the length of the essay. Each paragraph should be restricted to the explanation of one supporting opinion. This improves the clarity of the essay and also creates an ease of readability. But the writer always needs to keep a logical connection between the body paragraphs and the thesis statement. It is also important to explain how and why the evidence supports the thesis.

For a good argumentative essay, the writer has to discuss both the sides of the controversy. The conflicting opinions of the topic should be discussed in different paragraphs of the body. After describing the “other” side, the writer should give his point of view and provide proofs on why his side is the correct one.

There are several ways of organizing the supporting and the opposing opinions on the topic.

Argumentative essay needs well-researched, precise, accurate, and recent information to back up the thesis statement. The writer needs to provide some facts, logics, statistics, or anecdotal evidences where appropriate and also should define in words to support the thesis. Finally, the last line of the body paragraph explains how your evidences prove your opinion.

  1. Conclusion

This is the part where the writer has to struggle a bit. This part must leave the most instant impact on the reader’s mind so it should be effective and logical. Summarize the information provided in the body of the essay. Restate the importance of the topic by reviewing the main points and the thesis.

There is one similarity between the argumentative and narrative essay is that both essays take the reader down a path. In a narrative essay, that path is generally personal to the writer, whereas an argumentative essay usually takes the impersonal way by using evidence.


Here are a few examples of Argumentative essays

  • Good and bad teachers
  • Slavery
  • Games and violence
  • Fashion and Identity
  • Negative effects of television
  • Is money an effective motivator at work?

Critical Essay

“Criticism” means the art of making a detracting assessment. A critical essay is an inquiry of a document or composition such as a book, article, film or painting. This type of essay suggests interpretation and evaluation. Since it offers an analysis of some other’s writing so it generally takes the form of a dispute. It is actually an argument piece of writing. The critical essay allows your knowledge to develop. It requires a detailed analysis of a topic. The word “critical” has both positive and negative significance. It portrays your attitude when you read the article.
Critical writing should disclose your understanding of the problem. The arguments are very essential for critical writing so all your arguments of the essay should be supported by relevant and realistic evidence. Whether you agree or disagree with the contention of the author, but still you have to give the best possible arguments either to support or oppose the assertion of the author.

Features of a Critical essay

•    Critical writing should be precise and logical in delivering your information.
•    It should be informative. It should stress on the literary work being studied and not on the emotions and feelings of the person writing the literary work.
•    Critical writing involves denying the actual writer’s opinion. It means to think critically, analyzing and explaining your evidences.
•    Do not judge the author’s writings rather explain how the author’s conclusion can be accepted under certain circumstances.
•    The explanation should be well organized and each part should support the main line of argument.
•    Always use, serious and objective tone in critical writing.
•    Remember that your argument, evidence and conclusion are defined.

A Critical essay is a review or critique of another work. Writing a critical essay involves both critical reading and critical writing. A good critique should ask the following questions to him about the material he is reading in order to think critically. If you think critically, you can write critically.
•    Who is the author of the book?
•    What is the nature of the work?
•    What is the intention of the book?
•    What is the author’s point of view?
•    What is the author trying to conclude?
•    What is the main message of the book?
•    What is the organizational plan of the author’s writing? Does it achieve the objectives?
•    What evidences are used to back up the main message?
•    Are the evidences persuasive? Do they affect the gravity of the work?
•    Is the author’s technique thorough?
•    What evidences the author missed in his writing?
•    Is the author’s conclusion accurate?
•    Do I agree with his work? What is the reason of agreeing or disagreeing his work?
•    What rhetorical strategies are used by the author? Are they impressive?

Sample outline for a Critical essay

After analyzing the author’s writing carefully, the essay can be formulated using this outline.
I. Background information to help readers understand the type of the work.
A. Information about the work
1. Title
2. Author
3. Publication date
4. Declaration of topic and intention
B. Thesis statement revealing writer’s main opinion of the work
II. Summary or explanation of the work
III. Analysis and/or interpretation
A. Intention and discussion of the work
B. Judging the arrangement of the work
C. Potency of the work
D. Judging how the author behaves towards the topic
E. Judging the claim of the work to the reader

Tips for writing a Critical essay

  1. First of all, decide your main line of argument that will run constantly through your essay. This should be your very own argument and not summarizing someone’s argument.
  2. You have to collect a lot of proofs to back up your argument, but be selective in choosing. Too many evidences make it troublesome for the readers to understand so make sure that your evidences are the most convincing ones.
  3. Critical writing involves a lot of critical reading. Read the author’s work critically. This includes the evaluation of the facts presented by the author.
  4. Once your analysis is over, check your arguments and evidences, and consider both the strengths and weakness. Make your evidence stronger for the principal line of reasoning and also give the opposing views with evidence that you have found against it. Balance the weakness with strong evidence.
  5. Make a clear conclusion to create a strong impact on your readers. The writing should lead to your conclusion but do not simply re-tell the narrative. It is better if you write your conclusion before accumulating the proofs because knowing your conclusion will produce a rational piece of work.
  6. Proofread your writings for any logical or grammatical mistakes. Review your work by critically thinking.

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