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Giddens (1990, p. 64) defines 'globalization' as 'the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa'. Scholte (2000) has re-interpreted 'globalization' in terms of internationalization, liberalization, universalization, westernization, and deterritorialization. Garrett (2010) has differentiated the meanings of 'globalization' between the East and the West, arguing that public experiences and perceptions of 'globalization' differ considerably. In addition, Xu (2013, pp. 3-8) has summarized the meanings of 'globalization' as 'mobility', 'cultural blending', 'local functionality', 'super-diversity', and 'heterogeneity'. How do you define and interpret 'globalization'?
Please write a short essay in approximately 1000 words (excluding references) on the topic of Defining 'Globalization'.
You are expected to review relevant academic literature on 'globalization', and provide your own definition(s) and interpretations of 'globalization'.
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Globalisation is a recent phenomenon which has been interpreted in varied ways since the early phase of 1990. According to (Cutterela, 2012) believed that globalization is successfully emerging from an international network that typically belongs to an economic and social system. The term was first used as early as in 1930 in the publication Towards New Education to present an overview of the human experience in education. Later since the 1960s the term began to be used by the economists and social scientists interchangeably. Researchers have connected globalization with local, national as well as regional perspectives. It is linked with social and economic relationship networks that improved and widens the global interaction. According to the Swedish journalist Thomas Larsson, in his book'The Race to the Top: The Real Story of Globalization, mentions that globalization “is the process of the shrinking of the world, the shortening of distances, and the closeness of things'. Thus it is imperative from the scholarly definitions that there is no fixed definition of the term, however, it has been interpreted in varied ways to define relative success. It is therefore evident from the research conducted by (Al-Rodhan, 2006), on globalization that the term is sporadic and cannot be encompassed within a set of time frame. It involves economic integration, transmission of knowledge, transfer of policies across birder, cultural stability, reproduction, the discourse of power and international relations. In short, it is a global process, which is constantly changing with the development of human society.
During the first decade of the 21st century, people started traveling to other countries for growth and opportunity. Education, job and professional demand forced people from developing countries to trail the global platform. (Al-Rodhan, 2006). According to (Castells, 2004), economic growth has given rise to ideological as well as social movements. Thinker (Crystal, 2003), described 'Globalisation as a concept refers to the ways in which developments in one region can rapidly come to have significant consequences for the security and well-being of communities in quite distant regions of the globe'. Hence it is imperative from the research that globalization is a perennial process that enables continuous change in the world. The change, however, is supported as well as accelerated by the technological change, price and trade liberalization and by developing the importance of supranational rules. Globalisation has therefore exposed the national economy to more competition. It has been time again identified as one of the exceptionally complicated as well as the controversial concept. It is not a new but a recent phenomenon that is developing for a certain period of time (Scholte, 2002). It is there for a long time, but the recent economic activities, however, are completely different from the traditional one. In the present scenario, globalisation includes a variety of features that are the key drivers of the global economic integration, such as (a) internationalisation of production associated with the changes in the nature of production, (b) extension of international trade and services at the international platform, and (c) increase of the flow of international capital. According to (Murray, 2006) ability to communicate in English helped in opening doors for personal, professional as well as cultural development. Pedagogy has taken center stage and enabled language studies at various levels. English language learning has soon evolved as a necessity in the present context and encouraged people to grow at the global level. Soon Chinese people became industry conscious and growth-oriented. It is during the same period when English language penetrated the Chinese society and encouraged English language learning for growth and economic development at the international platform (Garrett, 2010).
The term globalization is often identified to refer to attributes such as extending connectivity, the interdependence of economic, integration, and technological, political, cultural and different types of cross-border activities. In a perennially growing globalized society, it is essential to empower people to communicate across different culture as well as confidently exchange opinion at the international platform (Sasaki, 2006). The new technologies have introduced a unique form of communication by incorporating mass distributed text in multiple forms specifically by using the digital platform. People across the world are culturally sensitive and emotionally attached, global interaction has opened new vistas and paved fresh ways of growth and development. Hence English language learning has adapted to new strategies and techniques to upgrade non-native English speakers and encourage them to communicate comfortably at the international platform and evolve as a global citizen (Sharifian, 2009). Thus globalization is identified by researchers as an ongoing debate that is shrouded in ambiguity. Defining it in proper meaningful sentences is not only difficult but would fail to convey the meaning of the term or idea as put forward by the researcher. Globalisation has been time and again used in various senses such as economic development, liberalization, and communication. In short, it is therefore evident from the research study that it is an approach that helps a developing country to grow at the international platform and enjoy economic freedom (Scholte J. A., 2000).