Planning Theory, History And Current Issues

You can download the solution to the following question for free. For further assistance in Architectural Engineering assignments please check our offerings in Architectural Engineering assignment solutions. Our subject-matter experts provide online assignment help to Architectural Engineering students from across the world and deliver plagiarism free solution with free Grammarly report with every solution.

(ExpertAssignmentHelp does not recommend anyone to use this sample as their own work.)

Word Count

3000 words


Architectural Engineering


6 Days

Assignment Criteria

This is an essay that involves an assessment of the efficacy of planning by looking closely at  whether one plan actually worked and delivered what it set out to achieve.  

For it is often said that planners draw plans and once one has been done then another will  take its place without much regard for what has preceded it. Plan-making indeed is often  seen as a futile exercise, making projections into a future which no-one can ever know in a  situation where much of for example, how a city works is well outside the control of the  planner or government. In contrast, others would argue that the history of planning in  Australia has shown the incredible utility of planning with places such as Canberra and new  master planned suburbs testimony to its value.  

So to further explore this debate, you are to do an evaluation yourselves of one plan. Critical  will be your choice of criteria – whether you look to the terms set by the planners  themselves, use some of the ethical principles from Module 1 (such as enhancing social  equity or progressing the greater good) or draw on some of the theories presented in  Module 2 (such as ones supporting higher urban densities, ecologically sustainable  development or garden suburbs). In addition you should locate your chosen plan into the  history of Australian planning (described in Module 3) and might even consider some of the  current issues and how they might be addressed (such as for better suburbs from Module  4).  

You are then to choose your plan. It might be best to choose those from a place that you  know to be able to assess just whether their objectives have been realised. It might also be  wise to select a plan that has some time to be realised. As well as outlining the plan you will  therefore need to detail the criteria you will use to assess it and then actually conduct such  an on the ground assessment. So in contrast to the first essay which involved a close reading  and analysis of a planning theory this essay takes you into the field and asks you to consider  how one plan has actually worked. 

The choice of the plan to be interrogated is important, as it needs to have enough volume,  complexity, durability and words to allow such an analysis. One example could be 

Melbourne 2030, chosen because of its obvious importance to large numbers of people and  because its scale, age and scope allowed the sort of analysis required in this exercise.  Underpinned by both Consequentialism – in that it presented a number of principles and  priorities that would produce a range of concrete and desirable outcomes – this plan was  also Utilitarian in its commitment to the entire population but also very Rawlsian in that it  had a concerted focus on improving social equity in the city.  

If these were some of the ethical assumptions underpinning the plan which could then be  assessed for their realisation, it also contained a large number of ideas drawn from past  planning theory; in particular a commitment to sustainability (reflecting the ecological body  of theory emerging in the 1970s), social equity (drawing on the welfare and Marxist  planners of the 1970s), involved at least some public participation (after Davidoff) but also  elevated the role of the market in propelling the city into the global economy (a neo-liberal  globalisation agenda). There was also statements and planning commitments to open  spaces and walkability as well as connecting the city to its regional counterparts (invoking  the Garden City ideas of Ebenezer Howard). There may well be other objectives within the  plan that could be the focus of your evaluation.  

The Unit Learning outcomes assessed in this essay are shown below (in bold): For the unit – 

    1. Articulate the nature of ethics and its role and importance of ethical planning in today's society 2. Have a command of the major theoretical frameworks which have informed Western planning  practice over the last one hundred years 
    2. Have a good understanding of the history of Australian planning 
    3. Be able to relate theoretical material to the history of Australian planning 
    4. Evaluate the planning system in Australia and its effectiveness 
    5. Understand the relationship between governance, policy, regulation and planning 7. Be able to use a range of abstract and practical tools to define and delimit a plan for solving contemporary problems.

Why Choose Us?

Assignment Understanding Brief

Review your requirements with our FREE Assignment Understanding Brief and avoid last minute chaos.

Global PhD Experts

We provide you services from PhD experts from well known universities across the globe.

Free Grammarly Report

No more plagiarism worries. We give you a FREE Grammarly report with every assignment.

Delivery Before Deadline

Our experts work round the clock to provide you with solutions before the scheduled deadline.

Assignment Solution


Planning can be regarded as a form of governance policies that helps in economical development of the state or country. In this particular context, Melbourne 2030 is taken into consideration and, the reliable planning process and effectiveness of that planning are also critically analyzed (Marcuse, 2009). However, the brief history of Australian planning also illustrated in this study, and it provides a concise idea regarding the development of the metropolitan city. The governance always tries to provide the best possible service to the citizens and also maintain stable, economic conditions that fulfill the demands of the stakeholders. There are some contemporary problems present such as health-related issue and environmental issues those must be eliminated from the society to make the community environment clean and reliable. The governmental authorities conducted some urgent development required in some areas to ensure suitable environmental condition. The concepts of density are utilizing by the state in modern urban planning development because it helps in understanding the needs and demands of the society by conducting the social analysis (Piccolo, 2009). The medical and social infrastructure development is then carried out by the regulatory authorities as per requirement of that particular state or region. Tourism planning is another component of economic development because innovative and attractive policies are implemented by the government to increase the number of tourists to visits in a particular region and thus economic benefits are observed. With the help of engagement and supportive promotional strategy the standard 'community culture' is established and it can be stated that several 'interactive tools' are implemented by the 'regulatory authority' that helps in individuals' participation. The foundation of society is becoming stronger due to reliable engagement and community initiatives. Therefore, each strategy and models were developed by conducting innovative planning, and it helps in community development.    

Australian planning

The enormous development conducted by the governmental authorities with the help of innovative planning theories. According to Sandercock, the history of Australian planning can be divided into seven levels and each stage of planning contributes to determining each stage of societal and economic development of Australia. Although there are primarily, three phases of planning are observed that provide a critical impact on overall society. The initial period is termed as colony-nations and the time was starting from 1788 to 1945. At the time of British Colonisation, the concept of planning helps in the social and economic development of cities in Australia (Anderson, 2012). After World War II, the second stage of Australian planning takes place that helps in the enormous development of Australian towns and economic development. However, the government intervention helps in the development of suburbs, and this particular approach was extended to 1980s. After that, the third level of planning came into the practical group of social and economic development in Australia. 'Most importantly', this particular 'time' the neo-liberal discourses are implemented by governmental authorities for the development of the urban environment. The regulatory authorities concentrated on overall factors that provide a critical impact on overall social environment development because it is important to eliminate the issues that are created a disaster on health condition. Obesity and health disorders rate is increasing rapidly and it becomes a major problem for the conventional society and therefore, extraordinary policies and strategies are taken into consideration by the government to make the environment clean and by raising community awareness reliable development will be done easily because the valuable cooperation is provided by individuals. The government structure development planning is also conducted after the invention of the tertiary planning system that, the effective decision making regarding any social development is taken quickly as per the requirement that results in facilitating the service for the citizens (Boyce, 2010). The organizational settlement is conducted by the Europeans and after that, the government of Australia provide a reliable understanding of planning system to the individuals and after that in late '19th century' the colony system in South Australia and New South Wales was established. In the words of Home (1997), The Grand Model is one of the most innovative frameworks that help to determine the needs of security and free-market development. On the other hand, the control of the native population is also showcased in that particular model.  Therefore, this particular type of development helps in understanding the truth behind the city layout structure of Australia. However, it can be stated that, the governmental authorities conducted enormous development with the help of innovative tools and models. Most importantly, Garden City and City Beautiful movements were taking place that provide critical significance to the planning system and the adequate understanding of planning in several areas of development is properly understood the individuals as well as the governmental authorities (El Mir, 2008). In the early stage of planning and development receive a tremendous amount of pressure on the existing cities to make effective control over the functional areas that helps in the overall evolution of the city. In the year of 1840s, most of all the business sectors and governmental agencies implemented innovative tools in their business and regulatory operations because cluster analysis helps in understanding the needs of development of particular functional areas. With the help of innovation and modern technological tools reliable solution or development is conducted in the society, business sectors and cultural development that ensure the needs of planning in the development of the economic and social condition of the region (Farmar-bowers, 2013).  In 1994, the extraordinary idea of garden cities and town planning was gathered from Britain and after that, the entire idea and execution framework is taken for the development of Garden cities in Australia. The practical town planning system helps in city development and the primary needs of individuals are fulfilled with 'development policies' and most importantly the required modification of government structure is also identified that helps in maintaining the suitable administration system as well as it results in creating reliable platform for individuals to make an excellent knock in business or environmental development. In '1930s' the rate of unemployment and poverty was increasing rapidly and those provide immense impact on the community and to eliminate these issues the governmental authorities implemented Slum Reclamation and Housing Act in the year of '1930s' that provide several opportunities for individuals because the subsidised housing development is conducted by the national authorities (Glavovic, 2014). Furthermore, it can be stated that reliable development is carried out by the regulators with -the help of effective decision making and policy invention that helps to fulfil the needs and demands of the citizens.       

Download This Assignment Sample For Free

    This form collects your email so that we can correspond with you through our newsletters. Checkout our Privacy policy for more information.
    Yes, i consent to this conditions.